STAGE 1 DEPENDENCE
STAGE 2 REBELLION
In stage 2 the main issue is rebellion.
The students test, challenge and try out the teacher. The student group
separates into two camps, one in opposition to the teacher, the other seeking
to maintain dependent group behavior. Some students challenge or ignore the
teacher's efforts to control the class. Noise level tends to be high. Trust level
among students is low, and aggressive interactions and put-downs are common.
The rebellious sub-group is extrinsicly motivated by peer group approval, moderated
by fear of teacher punishment. The intrinsic motivation is for autonomy, moderated by
STAGE 3 COHESION
In stage 3, the main issue is cohesion.
Students are friendly and trusting to each other and the teacher.
There is very little disruptive behavior. There is lots of interaction but of an orderly
type They conform to group norms. There is little disagreement, as this is seen as
disruptive to the harmony of the group.
This inability to handle conflict results in some covert bad feeling.
Extrinsic motivation comes from praise and encouragement from peer group
and teacher. Breach of class norms brings strong group disapproval.
STAGE 4 AUTONOMY
Autonomy is the main issue at stage 4. Individuals are self-directed,
able to seek and give support but function well without it.
Students take responsibility for their own learning.
There is a high level of interaction.
Agreement and discussion are the norm;
agreement occurs in the context of disagreement.
and Conflict Programs
CONDUCTING DEMOCRATIC CLASS MEETINGS
Dr. Paul Gathercoal, Associate Professor & Director,
Educational Technology Specialization
in Curriculum and Instruction
School of Education California Lutheran University